Essay on international perspective over open prisons

Private Prisons. Search this site. Private vs. Many states are expanding their prison capacity due to the increase of incarceration and the length of incarceration. Because of the continued increase in prison population, private prisons are likely to increase.

Private prisons are an easy, quick-fix, and cheap solution to the overcrowding of prisons and jails. On the other hand, it is clear that private prisons have created additional legal, moral, and policy problems.

If private prisons become the most viable solution, oversight of inmate care and rehabilitation should be conducted by governmental agencies. Private prisons are not going to adopt policies and procedures that will hurt their profits so governmental agencies must meet in the center to ensure regulation and promotion of correctional goals. If private prisons are used as an innovative strategy of rehabilitation programs, private prisons have the ability to help the inmates and the criminal justice system.

However until this occurs, research on private prisons must find a systematic way of analyzing and comparing, use bigger sample sizes, use statistical significance results, and move beyond case studies. Further Readings Prison, Inc. Hallett Punishment for sale: Private, prisons, big business, and the incarceration binge by D.

Leighton Who benefits when a private prison comes to town? Introduction History Types Private vs.Functionalists would point to the positive functions prison might perform in society —Prison could act as a deterrent — thus reinforcing social regulation; and it should also work to maintain equilibrium and balance in our society — making up for the failings of other institutions such as the family and the education system — restoring order through incapacitating those who break the law.

Marxists argue that by relying on prison, we ignore the failings of the system that lead to the conditions of inequality and poverty which lead to crime. Supporting evidence for the Marxist view comes from the fact that there are higher rates of imprisonment in more unequal countries. Left realists criticise Marxists for absolving criminals from blame — people in jail mostly deserve to be there and their victims are most likely to be working class themselves.

Prison seams more humane than physical punishment but in reality it is much more invasive as a means of social control. One criticism of Foucault is that he fails to recognize that many prisoners do not change their behavior even though they are being watched!

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Since the s there has been a significant increase in the use of imprisonment in the United Kingdom — numbers have roughly doubled since with the total prison population now standing at about and we have one of the highest rates of imprisonment in the western world. This increase has gone hand in hand with the implementation of Right Realist policies that emphasize rational choice theory as the cause of crime and zero tolerance as the solution to crime.

The state claims that tougher penalties are one of the major causes of declining crime rates. However David Garland points out that the crime rate has fallen in many countries over the last two decades, even in those that do not imprison as many people as the UK.

Garland actually argues that the reason the US and the UK lock up so many people is because of neo-liberalism — neo-liberal policies have made these societies more unequal and more individualistic — life has become harsher — and thus it is easier for the state to justify harsher penalties. It is also worth noting that the characteristics of the prison population are very different to the characteristics of the population as a whole.

People who are over-represented include ethnic minority groups, men, the underclass and the young. It is also worth noting that many female prisoners are likely to have suffered physical and emotional abuse and many claim they are in jail because of pressure to do criminal acts coming from their male partners.

The critical approaches of Marxism, Foucault and Garland are probably the most useful here as these remind us that it is the rise of neo-liberal hegemony since the s and right realism since the s that have lead to an increasing crime rate, and then to the increases in prison populations experienced in neo-liberal countries such as the UK and the USA.

The Spirit Level — how inequality effects the crime rate. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly.

essay on international perspective over open prisons

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Related Posts The Spirit Level — how inequality effects the crime rate. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Previous Previous post: Critical Responses to Postmodernism. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish.

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These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Necessary Necessary. Non-necessary Non-necessary.This sample Prison Overcrowding Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only.

Like other free research paper examples, it is not a custom research paper. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our custom writing services and buy a paper on any of the criminal justice research paper topics.

One such area of increased scrutiny is the degree to which the inmate population exceeds the rated capacity of the institution in which it is housed. Canada, Great Britain, and the Scandinavian countries have recently raised concerns about prison overcrowding, and many nations in Africa, Asia, and South America have prisons that are more crowded than those in the United States.

Prison overcrowding has traditionally been defined by density i. A distinction can be drawn, however, between overcrowding and density. There are two forms of density: spatial density and social density. Social density, on the other hand, is measured by the amount of double and triple bunking found in a correctional institution. The overriding cause of prison overcrowding is fairly obvious: The number of inmates exceeds the spatial and social capacity of correctional institutions and prison systems to house these inmates.

On the other hand, the underlying cause of this surplus of inmates is less apparent. One important factor, at least in the United States, is a punitive public. Accordingly, they introduce legislation that provides for mandatory, determinate, or longer sentences; reduces good-conduct time credit; and restricts or eliminates early-release programs such as parole.

Drug use is instrumental in a quarter to a third of all new jail and prison admissions and is the leading cause of parole and conditional release violation. Demographic changes contribute to prison overcrowding, as exemplified by the crime explosion of the mids when the baby boomers were in the age range most conducive to crime late teens to mids.

Over time, prisons age and become less efficient; some may even be closed. This places an increased burden on existing facilities and adds to the growing overcrowding problem. The most frequently mentioned consequence of prison overcrowding is aggression.

Studies conducted on prison overcrowding, however, have yielded mixed results. In some studies, prison overcrowding has been found to correspond to an increase in future disciplinary problems, particularly aggression.

In other studies, prison overcrowding has failed to correlate with aggressive and nonaggressive disciplinary problems. There are several possible explanations for these inconclusive and sometimes anomalous findings.

First, because younger individuals often have trouble avoiding getting disciplinary reports in prison, it is possible that changes in the age structure of the prison or the practice of housing older and younger prisoners in separate facilities could influence the results of overcrowding research. Second, most of these studies overlook the positive or ameliorative effects that may reduce the negative impact of prison overcrowding.

Both these factors, age and positive influences, suggest that a systems approach should guide research on prison overcrowding. The most common administrative response is to build more prisons, although this is an expensive proposition that may fail to produce its desired effect. Prison construction will have little impact on prison overcrowding if the problem resides with the jail and its inability to manage pretrial and short-sentence inmates. Front-end strategies are designed to manage prison overcrowding by reducing the number of new inmates entering the prison system.

One of the most obvious front-end strategies is to prevent crime before it occurs. Even when crime does occur, incarceration may not always be the best option.Prison systems have long been a topic of debate within the realm of criminal justice.

The purpose of this discussion is to examine prison systems and the impact of prison systems on inmates' adjustment and behavior. Institutionalization A central point of any prison system is the level of institutionalization. Cohesion is defined as the strength of the relationship between single aspects of the system and the system as a whole. This means that the prison system behaves as a single large…… [Read More]. Prison System According to the.

Given the growing prison population, U. Many believe that prisons and incarceration have become the panacea for all of society's ills, and where once the U. Prison has become not only a class weapon, but an instrument of control, in particular the control of 'alien' populations, populations that were formerly colonized peoples, such as former slaves, Native Americans, Latin Americans, Asians, and Pacific Islanders, who all too often have been considered the…… [Read More].

Prison the Modern Prison System Represents a. Prison The modern prison system represents a macrocosmic understanding of how to punish the collective sins of society. Within any environment, the strength of its contents is a direct reflection on the worst of its contents as well. The importance of the cathartic rehabilitation that occurs during learning, growth, understanding and forgiveness dictates how one would be rehabilitated in any system, prison or not.

The sheer numbers of prisoners within the United States represents a concept of punishment that appears to exceed rational thought and reasoning. Are our citizens that troubled? Do we really need such an extensive prison system that is lost in bureaucratic inefficiency and sadistic behavior? The purpose of this essay is to examine these questions in an attempt to compare and contrast the present penal and prison systems and whether these methods are striving towards any type of collective goals.

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Furthermore these goals themselves will be…… [Read More]. This discussion is carried out in line with the observed cases of ethical, legal, and standards of practice considerations. The other issues addressed are the social and cultural composition of the population served and culturally sensitive practices, a theoretical framework that reflects the professional ethical codes of your field.

Issues of informed consent and acknowledgement of client and patient rights, strategies to ensure confidentiality and potential problems that result from dual relationship issues are also discussed.

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Some of the traits that are characterized with correctional environment include vices like confrontation, violence, disease outbreaks manipulation sexual assaults and gang indoctrinations into new world of crimes. According to a study of New York Correctional employees done by Aziz, Levine, Sieber, Schulte and Steenlandsmost of the officers who were exposed to tuberculosis, about one third of the new infections whereas result of occupational exposure.

One of the rules that has…… [Read More]. The writer explores the prison system and presents good and bad points about it. The writer argues that the prison system is not an effective one, as is demonstrated by the rate of return by former inmates. There were five sources used to complete this paper. America is well-known for having the largest prison system in the world. The criminal justice system continues to send convicted offenders to the big house, and those who have been released continue to return.

Whether or not the prison system is effective has been a topic of hot debate for many years. As prisons are constructed and politicians use crime as a political platform, victims demand harsher sentences while advocates for change allege it won't change things.

Prisons in America receive a lot of attention because there are so many inmates within the walls and wire, but the bottom line is the…… [Read More]. Prison System Ineffectiveness. Overhaul of Our Prison System Needed Most people credit increased incarceration with reduced crime 5. Prison growth has skyrocketed 5. Prison costs have skyrocketed 1 Large numbers of mentally ill in U. Overcrowding statistics on problem Three strikes and you're out rule Drug laws have caused increase in inmates increased sentence length Unrealistic expectations Political consequences if this pattern is challenged Affect areas of society unevenly.

No benefit: drugs are cheaper than they have ever been before. New home for the mentally ill High rate of mentally ill and the addicted in prsons. Cause: Changes in mental health care Prisons are Expensive A.Jails and Prisons Comparison Paper Throughout history, the general public often misinterprets the difference between jails and prisons. For long confinement terms, jails are not used to hold sentenced offenders. However, jails are the oldest of the correctional components.

According to Seiterjails were initiated prior to halfway houses, parole, probation, or prisons.

Private Prisons Essay

Also, jails hold various offenders such as those being held administratively for a criminal justice agency, waiting to transfer. Criminals go in to be rehabilitated and to be able to come out as a better citizen. But when the prisons and jails effect that in a negative way things are not working the way they are supposed to.

Even though those. It is very important that you realize your surroundings in a jail or prison. I made sure that I read every inmates file all of them.

essay on international perspective over open prisons

You will soon realize that you are a supervisor over Inmates, some say you are a baby sitter as much as some do not want to hear that. It is true. I love my job. I love my co workers, best guys I have worked with.

essay on international perspective over open prisons

I want to make sure they get home to their families so we go into work the way we came out. Safety and Security is to help us and help the inmates and. A lot of people talk about someone before they get sentenced to prison, but do not ask about what goes on while they serve time for their actions.

Criminals rights are basically revoked during their sentencing and not given back after. Whether it is the way they are treated by prison officials, voting while in jail or when they get let free, and the way they are treated for the religion they follow.

They are overlooked by people who have right just because they are locked up and serving time. Prisoners deserve more rights than what they are subjected to. Yes they may be in prison but how would you feel if some of your basic rights were taken away. They are serving their time for what they did so why not allow them to have more rights? Allowing them to have more rights could be more beneficial than you think. Allowing them to vote is just one of the rights that I think they deserve to have.

Taking away the right to vote. Have you ever thought about what it would be like to be in prison? Would you be able to survive in a place full a animals?


The prison system in the America, is seen for as a place full of animals, but I see it as a group full of humans who made a mistake. As its a group of humans they should be treated in a humane way.

The prison system is seen as a way to punish the inmates and get revenge for what they have done. A Nordic prison sees it in a different way. The warden sees it as an opportunity. Private prison management strategists understand that the massive amounts revenue.While prison put people at ease knowing that offenders are serving time for their crime.

It also runs the risk of making an offender who is non-violent prior to incarceration extremely violent once their time has been served.

essay on international perspective over open prisons

In society not everyone can be the model citizen that we wish everyone was however there are individuals who commit heinous crimes and for that they must pay for. Imprisonment has historically been the popular solution. However, there are many instances in which people are sent to prison that would be better served for community service, rehab, or some other form of punishment.

Prison affects more than just the prisoner; the families, friends, employers, and communities of the incarcerated also pay a price. Prison as a punishment has its pros and cons; although it. Incarceration serves as a punishment for criminals due to their actions against the law.

It is a solution for keeping the public safe. Prisoners follow a strict rules and schedules while following the culture within the walls among other prisoners. As a result of their crimes, convicts lose their freedom and are place among others who suffer the same fate. Crime is the cause of this establishment, but what are the effects of incarceration on convicts, their relations, and society?

From the Outside Looking In When people think of prison they underestimate the truth within the walls.

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People do not know the full effect of the system unless they have lived through it first-hand. Being incarcerated can have different effects on people depending on many different factors.

Sometimes it all depends on the person they are. Some people are just not strong enough to withstand the effects of prison. Another factor could be the circumstances which led to the incarceration. Also, it all. The Prison structure of the twenty first century uses that same building design as the panopticon. We see how the plague town in the Panopticism shows a chain of authority. Prisons in the twenty first century use the same style of chain of authority in their correctional institutes.

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The panopticon brings out a lot of mental effect to the prisoners when they are sent into the cell. Prisoners in today 's society society go through the same mental effects of inmates in the Panopticon. Prison reforms are necessary to better the conditions for prisoners to enable the creation of an efficient and reliable correctional system. In reforming the prison system, it is essential for alternatives to incarceration to be explored UNODC.

There has been a sizeable escalation in the number of individuals serving prison sentences in American prisons. The increased number of inmates. Because of this, these humans or inmates, are sentenced to spend a significant part of their life in a confined, small room. With that being said, the prison life can leave a remarkable toll on the inmates life in many different categories.

The first and arguably most important comes in the form of mental health. Living in prison with have a great impact on the psychological part of your life.Home All Issues Vol. I Prison and sociological perspective. What a question! An affirmative response to the latter question should not elude the complexity of the problem. These documents often reflect an authentic investigational effort and they present a vast panorama of descriptions and interpretations.

Do of course some areas pertaining to life and death in confinement definitely remain in the dark. At the least, we have a problem here that merits deeper scrutiny. What sort of knowledge do we want to set up in contrast to the knowledge we deem less relevant? Criticism must therefore be subjected to criticism, not to annihilate it but rather, to seize its nature and assess its potential impact. This reflexive self-scrutiny entails some obvious risks: it may unsettle conceptual routines, making conceptualization, and by the same token research work, more laborious.

Doing without this self-scrutiny entails another, converse risk, one which is much more prejudicial: that of producing analyses that have a strange resemblance with the systems, practices and perceptions which the researcher seeks, paradoxically, to criticize, or at least are easily accommodated by them.

This dilemma structures various sociological discourses on prison. Next we will discuss an alternative to this dilemma, consisting of articulating qualitative field research within prisons with a more comprehensive analysis of contemporary forms of government and the exertion of political power.

The thrust of this off-center, transversal approach is to broach research on prison as a particular application of a general sociology program, in an attempt to open a new avenue, distinctly different from and complementary to the more classical sociology of prisons.

Prison reform is judged impossible, so that the only conceivable prospect of social-historical change is abolition. Thus, given the intrinsic failure of prisons to accomplish all of the contradictory missions assigned to them, the pure and simple elimination of prison, denounced as a source of sterile suffering 16 has been considered and demanded at regular intervals.

This stance is definitely intellectually fertile, primarily in that it demystifies the Law and produces a genuine epistemological break with the correctionalist project, thus opening new horizons for analysis. Cartuyvels: on the one hand, the attempt to make prison a place respectful of the law is tantamount to ratifying the existence of a correctional space that is seriously lacking in legitimacy, to accepting the persistence of a criminal justice system based on personal restraint which may be viewed as contrary to human rights, and to accepting the violence of a discriminatory, managerial logic of social exclusion.

There have been occasional attempts to ferret out a new historical dynamic susceptible of overcoming this dilemma. Following a brief overview of some trends investigating this vein, we will go on to explore the research ethos of another perspective which is radically transversal in its thinking and also attempts to free itself of the dilemma described above.

Thus, part of the problem is contained in the very search modern and state-propelled for its solution. This creates a vicious circle: the process of criminalization of various acts may be limitless and generate potentially limitless penal repression directed at all acts judged undesirable.

One thinks of Sykes, for example, who has brilliantly shown how social relations in prison are the outcome of the clash between the various ends it supposedly pursues Custody, Internal Order, Self-Maintenance, Punishment, Reform28 or of Goffman and his concept of the total institution which, as a structural concept, questioned the entire social system. Chauvenet, in particular, has recently revisited the articulation between micro- and macro- aspects, with an extremely stimulating analysis of social relations in prison, showing confinement for what it is: a defensive warring system which, instead of manning the borders and warding off an enemy from outside, is built into the sociopolitical and spatial fabric and is aimed at the enemy from within, shut up behind walls and unable to leave as long as the justice system has not decided otherwise.

By offering tools which integrate thinking about prisons in the dynamics of research on governmentality34 an alternative avenue for research appears, one which may take this research ethos further. Let us take two examples—certainly too succinct—of our research in process, conducted in France and Quebec.

In this sense—and this is a crucial point—the situation represents an extreme form of a new kind of domination, accurately identified by general sociology, which crosses the entire social scene. It is those people whose resources make them least able to shoulder responsibility for themselves and manage their own existence who are most strongly urged to do so.

Prison—the end-of-the-road of exclusion-producing circuits—represents the ultimate, most refined form of this process. The socially imposed requirement that one act as an individual turns into a heavy burden for individuals when they do not possess the necessary requisites for doing so and when that norm is not internalized but rather, is imposed on them from outside.

Foucault described a corrections-oriented prison at a time when Enlightenment-type freedom went hand in hand with normalcy, whence the expansion and development of the major social disciplines to which he applied his critical analysis.

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